library(knitr) options(knitr.kable.NA = "") knitr::opts_chunk$set(comment = ">") options(digits = 3) pkgs <- c("effectsize", "ggplot2", "correlation", "parameters", "bayestestR") if (!all(sapply(pkgs, require, quietly = TRUE, character.only = TRUE))) { knitr::opts_chunk$set(eval = FALSE) }

The `effectsize`

package contains function to convert among indices of effect
size. This can be useful for meta-analyses, or any comparison between different
types of statistical analyses.

The most basic conversion is between *r* values, a measure of standardized
association between two continuous measures, and *d* values (such as Cohen's
*d*), a measure of standardized differences between two groups / conditions.

Let's simulate some data:

set.seed(1) data <- bayestestR::simulate_difference( n = 10, d = 0.2, names = c("Group", "Outcome") )

print(data, digits = 3)

We can compute Cohen's *d* between the two groups:

cohens_d(Outcome ~ Group, data = data)

But we can also treat the 2-level `group`

variable as a numeric variable, and
compute Pearson's *r*:

correlation::correlation(data, include_factors = TRUE)[2, ]

But what if we only have summary statistics? Say, we only have $d=-0.37$ and we
want to know what the *r* would have been? We can approximate *r* using the
following formula [@borenstein2009converting]:

$$
r \approx \frac{d}{\sqrt{d^2 + 4}}
$$
And indeed, if we use `d_to_r()`

, we get a pretty decent approximation:

d_to_r(-0.31)

(Which also works in the other way, with `r_to_d(0.17)`

gives ```
r
round(r_to_d(-0.17),3)
```

)

As we can see, these are rough approximations, but they can be useful when we don't have the raw data on hand.

Although not exactly a classic Cohen's d, we can also approximate a partial-*d*
value (that is, the standardized difference between two groups / conditions,
with variance from other predictors partilled out). For example:

fit <- lm(mpg ~ am + hp, data = mtcars) parameters::model_parameters(fit) # A couple of ways to get partial-d: 5.28 / sigma(fit) t_to_d(4.89, df_error = 29)[[1]]

We can convert these semi-*d* values to *r* values, but in this case these
represent the *partial* correlation:

t_to_r(4.89, df_error = 29) correlation::correlation(mtcars[, c("mpg", "am", "hp")], partial = TRUE)[1, ] # all close to: d_to_r(1.81)

In binomial regression (more specifically in logistic regression), Odds ratios (OR) are themselves measures of effect size; they indicate the expected change in the odds of a some event.

In some fields, it is common to dichotomize outcomes in order to be able to
analyze them with logistic models. For example, if the outcome is the count of
white blood cells, it can be more useful (medically) to predict the crossing of
the threshold rather than the raw count itself. And so, where some scientists
would maybe analyze the above data with a *t*-test and present Cohen's *d*,
others might analyze it with a logistic regression model on the dichotomized
outcome, and present OR. So the question can be asked: given such a OR, what
would Cohen's *d* have been?

Fortunately, there is a formula to approximate this [@sanchez2003effect]:

$$ d = log(OR) \times \frac{\sqrt{3}}{\pi} $$

which is implemented in the `oddsratio_to_d()`

function.

Let's give it a try:

# 1. Set a threshold thresh <- 0 # 2. dichotomize the outcome data$Outcome_binom <- data$Outcome < thresh # 3. Fit a logistic regression: fit <- glm(Outcome_binom ~ Group, data = data, family = binomial() ) parameters::model_parameters(fit) # Convert log(OR) (the coefficient) to d oddsratio_to_d(-0.81, log = TRUE)

Odds ratio, although popular, are not very intuitive in their interpretations.
We don't often think about the chances of catching a disease in terms of *odds*,
instead we instead tend to think in terms of *probability* or some event - or
the *risk*. Talking about *risks* we can also talk about the *change in risk*,
knows as the *risk ratio* (*RR*).

For example, if we find that for individual suffering from a migraine, for every
bowl of brussels sprouts they eat, they're odds of reducing the migraine
increase by an $OR = 3.5$ over a period of an hour. So, should people eat
brussels sprouts to effectively reduce pain? Well, hard to say... Maybe if we
look at *RR* we'll get a clue.

We can convert between *OR* and *RR* for the following formula

$$
RR = \frac{OR}{(1 - p0 + (p0 \times OR))}

$$

Where $p0$ is the base-rate risk - the probability of the event without the
intervention (e.g., what is the probability of the migraine subsiding within an
hour without eating any brussels sprouts). If it the base-rate risk is, say,
85%, we get a *RR* of:

OR <- 3.5 baserate <- 0.85 oddsratio_to_riskratio(OR, baserate)

That is - for every bowl of brussels sprouts, we increase the chances of reducing the migraine by a mere 12%! Is if worth it? Depends on you affinity to brussels sprouts...

Note that the base-rate risk is crucial here. If instead of 85% it was only 4%,
then the *RR* would be:

OR <- 3.5 baserate <- 0.04 oddsratio_to_riskratio(OR, baserate)

That is - for every bowl of brussels sprouts, we increase the chances of reducing the migraine by a whopping 318%! Is if worth it? I guess that still depends on your affinity to brussels sprouts...

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